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» Sachchidananda Vatsyayan~सचिदानंद वात्स्यायन अज्ञेय

Sachchidananda Vatsyayan~सचिदानंद वात्स्यायन अज्ञेयddd

Sachchidananda Vatsyayan~सचिदानंद वात्स्यायन अज्ञेयSachchidananda Vatsyayan~सचिदानंद वात्स्यायन अज्ञेय

Sachchidananda Vatsyayan
Sachchidananda Hirananda Vatsyayan 'Agyeya' (सच्‍चिदानन्‍द हीरानन्‍द वात्‍स्‍यायन 'अज्ञेय') (7 March 1911 – 4 April 1987), popularly known by his pen-name Ajneya ("Beyond comprehension"), was a pioneer of modern trends not only in the realm of Hindi poetry, but also fiction, criticism and journalism. He was one of the most prominent exponents of the Nayi Kavita (New Poetry) and Prayog (Experiments) in Modern Hindi literature,  edited the 'Saptaks', a literary series, and started Hindi newsweekly, Dinaman.

Agyeya also translated some of his own works, as well as works of some other Indian authors to English. He also translated some books of world literature into Hindi.


Early life and education

Sachchidananda Vatsyayan was born on 7 March 1911 in a tent at Kushinagar, Kushinagar district of Uttar Pradesh. His father Hirananda was an archaeologist, who was also a scholar of Sanskrit. His childhood was spent in many different places, including Gorakhpur, Lucknow, Nalanda, Udupi, Madras, Jalandhar, Jammu and Srinagar.

He did Intermediate from Madras Christian College in 1927, thereafter studied at Forman Christian College, Lahore, where he did his B.Sc. in Industrial Science 1929. After graduation he was included in Punjab University's "Cosmic Ray Expedition" to Kashmir under Prof. James Martin Baned. He joined M.A. English, but couldn't complete his studies as soon he joined the Indian independence movement's underground activities with Bhagat Singh, Chandrashekhar Azad, Sukhdev and Yashpal. In November 1930 he was arrested under the fictitious identity of Mulla Mohammed Bux in Amritsar. He was kept in Lahore for one month, then spent three and a half years (1930–33) in jails of Delhi and Punjab in the infamous Delhi Conspiracy Case. Later he remained under house arrest for two months in the Fort and for two years at home. His classic novel-trilogy Shekhar: Ek Jivani was a product of those prison days. The third part of the novel was never published. In the beginning he was associated with the PWA (Progressive Writers Association) and was a member of the Anti-Fascist Front. During World War II in the wake of the fascist Japanese attack's threat he joined Indian ( that time Allied) Force for three years (1943–1946) as a Captain by mobilising people's resistance against the enemy. He left the army when the war was over.
Career

Agyeya edited "Sainik" from Agra (1936), "Vishal Bharat" from Calcutta (now Kolkata) (1936) and "Prateek" (1947) and "Naya Prateek" (1973) respectively from Allahabad and New Delhi. In English he edited "Vak" (1951) also.

He travelled extensively, both in India and abroad. Between 1961 and 1964, he held a visiting faculty position at the University of California, Berkeley.

In 1965, he returned to India and became Founder Editor of the newsweekly Dinaman of the Times of India Group. When the members of the Hungry generation or Bhookhi Peerhi movement were arrested and prosecuted for their anti-establishment writings, 'Ajneya' through Dinmaan relentlessly supported the young literary group of Kolkata till they were exonerated. His dispatches on Bihar's famous famine are considered milestones in pro-people reporting.

He remained in India till 1968, before embarking on a trip to Europe. In 1969 he returned to Berkeley as Regents Professor, and continued there till June 1970. In 1976, he had an 8-month stint at Heidelberg University, as a Visiting Professor. Later he joined University of Jodhpur, Rajasthan as Professor and Head of the Deptt. of Comparative Literature.

He served as Editor of Jayprakash Narayan's Everyman's Weekly (1973–74) and Editor-in-Chief of Hindi daily Navbharat Times (1977–80) of the Times of India Group.

He died on 4 April 1987 in New Delhi.


Literary works

Poetry anthologies:

    Bhagndoot (1933)
    Chinta (1942)
    Ityalam (1946)
    Hari ghaas par kshan-bhar (1949)
    Baawra aheri (1954)
    Indradhanu raunde hue ye (1957)
    Ari o karuna prabhamaya (1959)
    Aangan ke paar dvaar (1961)
    Poorva (1965)
    Sunahale Shaivaal (1965)
    Kitni naavon mein kitni baar (1967)
    Kyonki main usei jaanta hoon (1969)
    Saagar-mudra (1970)
    Pahle main sannata bunta hoon (1973)
    Mahavriksha ke neeche (1977)
    Nadi ki baank par chhaya (1982)
    Sadanira-1 (1986)
    Sadanira-2 (1986)
    Aisa koi ghar aapne dekha hai (1986)
    Maruthal (1995)
    Sarjana ke kshan (Selection)
    Thaur thikaane (Handwritten, circulated zeroxed)
    Karaawas ke din (Trans. from English by Uday Shankar Shrivastava)
    Kavishri ( Ed. Shiyaram Sharan Gupt)
    Aaj ke lokpriy kavi (Ed. Vidya Niwas Mishra)
    Kaavya-stabak ( Ed by Vidya Niwas Mishra & Ramesh Chandra Shah)
    Sannate ka chhand (Ed by Ashok Vajpeyi)
    Ajneya: Sanklit kavitayen (Ed by Namvar Singh)

Novels:

    Shekhar: Ek Jeevani I (1941)
    Shekhar: Ek Jeevani II (1944)
    Shekhar: Ek Jeevni III (Unpublished)
    Nadi ke dweep (1952)
    Apne-apne ajnabi (1961)
    Barahkhambha (co-writer, 1987)
    Chhaya mekhal (Incomplete, 2000)
    Beenu bhagat (Incomplete, 2000)

Stories anthologies:

    Vipathga (1937)
    Parmpara (1944)
    Kothri ki baat (1945)
    Sharnaarthi (1948)
    Jaydol (1951)
    Amarvallari tatha anya kahaniyan(1954)
    Kadiayan tatha anya kahaniyan (1957)
    Acchute phool tatha anya kahaniyan (1960)
    Ye tere pratiroop (1961)
    Jigyasa tatha anya kahaniyan (1965)
    Meri priy kahaniyan (Selection,2004)
    Chhorra hua rasta (Sampoorn kahanitan-1, 1975)
    Lautti pagdandiyan (Sampoorn kahaniyan-2, 1975)
    Sampoorn Kahaniyan (2005)
    Adam Ki diary (Ed by Nand Kishore Acharya, 2002)

Play:

    Uttar Priyadarshi

Travelogue:

    Arei Yayavar Rahega Yaad (1953)
    Kirnon ki khoj mein (Selection,1955)
    Ek Boond Sahsa Uchhli (1960)

Criticism:

    Trishanku
    Hindi sahitya: Ek adhunik paridrishya
    Atmanepad
    Aatmparak
    Aalwaal
    Likhi kagad kore
    Jog likhi
    Adyatan
    Samvatsar
    Smriti ke paridrishya
    Srot aur setu
    Vyakti aur vyavastha
    Yug-sandhiyon par
    Dhaar aur kinaare
    Bhartiya kala drishti
    Smritichhanda
    Kendra aur paridhi
    Srijan: kyon air kaise
    Kavi-Nikash
    Kavi-drishti (Prefaces)
    Tadbhav (Selection by Ashok Vajpeyi)
    Lekhak ka Dayittva (Ed by Nand Kishore Acharya)
    Khule Mein Khada Ped (Ed by Nand Kishore Acharya)

Light Essyas:

    Sab rang
    Sab rang aur kuchh raag
    Kahan hai dwaraka
    Chhaya ka jangal

Diary:

    Bhavanti
    Antara
    Shaswati
    Shesha
    Kaviman (Ed by Ila Dalmia Koirala)

Memoirs:

    Smriti-lekha
    Smriti ke galiyaron se

Edited:

    Taar Saptak
    Doosra Saptak
    Teesra Saptak
    Chautha Saptak
    Pushkarini
    Naye ekanki
    Nehru abhinandan granth (co-editor)
    Roopambara (Sumitrnandan Pant abhinandan granth)
    Homvati smarak granth
    Sarjan aur sampreshan
    Sahitya ka parivesh
    Sahity aur samaj parivartan
    Samajik yatharth aur katha-bhasha
    Samkaleen kavita mein chhand
    Bhavishya aur sahitya
    Indian Poetic Tradition (With Vidya Niwas Mishra and Leonard Nathan)

Introducing:

    Naye Sahitya Srishta-1 Raghuveer Sahay: Seedihiyon par dhoop mein
    Naye Sahitya Srishta-2 Sarveshawar Dayal Saxena: Kaath ki ghantiyan
    Naye Sahitya Srishta-3 Ajit Kumar: Ankit hone do
    Naye Sahitya Srishta-4 Shanti Mehrotra

Conversations:

    Aparoksh, Ramesh Chandra Shah & others
    Rachna: Kyon aur kinke beech, Sharad Kumar, Geeti Sen & Others
    Agyeya Apne bare mein (AIR Archives), Raghuveer Sahay & Gopal Das
    Kavi Nayak Ajneya, Ila Dalmia & Neelima Mathur

In English:

    Prison days and other poems (Poetry)
    A sense of time (Essays)

Selection (general): Sanchayita (Ed Nand Kishore Acharya)

Translations:

    Shrikant (Sharat Chandra, from Bangla, 1944)
    Gora (Rabindranath Thakur, from Bangla)
    Raja (Rabindranath Thakur, from Bangla)
    Vivekanand (With Raghuvir Sahay, from Bangla)
    The resignation (Jainendra Kumar, into English)
    The seventh horse of the sun (Dharmveer Bharti, into English)
    The Silent waters (Poems of Sarveshwar Dayal Saxena, in 'Thought'0
    Vazir ka Feela (Ivo Andric, from English)
    Mahayatra (Par Lagerkvist's trilogy, from English)

Self-translated works:

    Islands in the stream (Nadi ke dweep, into English)
    To each his stranger (Apne apne ajnabi, into English)
    The unmastered lute and other poems (Asadhya Veena and other poems into English, Ed by Pritish Nandy)
    The revolving rock and other poems (Chakrant Shila and other poems into English, Ed Pritish Nandy)
    First Person, Second Person (Poems, into English with Leonard Nathan)
    Signs and silences (Poems, into English with Leonard Nathan)
    Nilambari (Poems, into English)
    Truculent clay (Bhavanti, into English with Manas Mukul Das)
    Preparing the ground (Antara, into English with Manas Mukul Das)

Translations in other languages: (Indian languages list too long)

    German: Sekh Ktoratien (By Lothar Lutze)
     : Stand-orte (By Lothar Lutze)
    Swedish: Den arket (By orten Al Bud)
    Servo-Crotian: Catoetien
     : prvo liche drugo liche
     :Vsak ima svoyega tuicha (By Tregoslav Andrich)

Films on Ajneya:

    Sarswat Van Ka Bavra Aheri, Producer Durgavati Singh, Doordarshan, New Delhi
    Sannate ka Chhand, Dir. Pramod & Neelima Mathur, Vatsal Nidhi, New Delhi
    Deep Akela, Dir. Pramod Mathur, MGAHVV, Wardha
    Kavi Bharti, Bharat Bhawan, Bhopal

Awards and honours

    Sahitya Akademi Award 1964 for Aangan Ke Par Dvar (Poetry).
    Jnanpith Award in 1978, for 'Kitni Naavon mein kitni baar', and the anthology of poems.
    Bharatbharati Award
    Golden Wreath Award for poetry in 1983.

Dramatic productions

His verse play Uttar Priyadarshi, about the redemption of King Ashoka was first staged in 1966 at Triveni open air theatre in Delhi in presence of the writer. Later it was adapted to Manipuri, by theatre director, Ratan Thiyam in 1996, and since been performed by his group, in various parts of the world.
Further reading

    Ajneya: Kathakaar Aur Vicharak, by Vijay Mohan Singh, Parijat Prakashan, Patna
    Ajneya aur Adhunik Racna ki Samasya, by Ramswarup Chaturvedi, Lokbharti, Allahabad
    Ajneya aur Unka Sahitya, by Vishwanath Prasad Tiwari. National Publishing House, New Delhi
    Ajneya: Ek Adhyayan, by Bholabhai Patel, Vani Prakashan, New Delhi
    Ajneya: Van ka Chhand, by Vidya Niwas Mishra, Vani Prakashan, New Delhi
    Ajneya ki Kavya Titirsha, by Nand Kishore Acharya, Vagdevi Prakashan, Bikaner
    Adhunik Hindi Kavya mein Vyaktittva, Ajneya ke Vishesh Sandarbha mein, by Ramkamal Rai, Lokbharti, Allahabad
    Shikhar Se Sagar Tak(Biography), by Ram Kamal Rai, National Publishing House, New Delhi
    Ajneya Aur Unka Katha Sahitya, by Gopal Rai, Vani Prakashan, New Delhi
    Ajneya Ki Kavita, by Chandrakant Bandivadekar, Vinod Pustak Mandir, Agra
    Ajnyeya: Vichar ka Swaraj, by Krishna Dutt Paliwal, Pratibha Pratishthan, New Delhi
    Ajneya: Kavi-karm ka Sankat, by Krishna Dutt Paliwal, Vani Prakashan, New Delhi
    Ajneya ka Katha-sahitya, A. Arvindakshan, Kochin
    Ajneya ka Antahprakriya Sahitya, by Mathuresh Nandan Kulshreshtha, Chitralekha Prakashan, Allahabad
    Ajneya aur Poorvottar Bharat, Ed Rita Rani Paliwal, Vani Prakashan, New Delhi
    Vagarth ka Vaibhav, by Ramesh Chandra Shah, Vani Prakashan, New Delhi
    The Quest of Ajneya, by Roger Hardham Hooker. Motilal Banarsidass Publishers, New Delhi
    Alochak Ajneya ki Upasthiti, Krishna Dutt Paliwal, Vani Prakashan, New Delhi
    Kavi Ajneya ki Saundarya Chetna, by Chandraprabha Baluja, Sahitya Prakashan, Meerut
    Ajneya: Kavya Rachana ki Visheshtayein, by Krishna Sinha. Bihar Hindi Granth Akademi, Patna
    Ajneya (Monograph), by Ramesh Chandra Shah, Sahitya Akedemi, New Delhi
    Ajneya by Prabhakar Machve, Rajpal & Sons, Delhi
    Ajneya ka Sansar, Ed by Ashok Vajpeyi, Pooroday Prakashan, New Delhi
    Chhayavad ke Pariprekshya mein Ajneya ka Kavya, by Kamal Kumar, New Delhi
    Ajneya ki Kavita: Parampara aur Prayog, by Ramesh Rishikalp, Vani Prakashan, New Delhi
    Ajneya: Kuchh Rang Kuchh Raag, by Srilal Shukl, Prabhat Prakashan, New Delhi
    Ajneya Vol.1 to Vol.5, Anthologies Ed by Harish Trivedi/ KD Paliwal, Roopa & Co., New Delhi
    Apne Apne Ajneya, Vol.I & Vol.II, Ed by Om Thanvi, Vani Prakashan, New Delhi





सच्चिदानंद वात्स्यायन


सच्चिदानंद हीरानंद वात्स्यायन "अज्ञेय" (७ मार्च, १९११- ४ अप्रैल, १९८७) को प्रतिभासम्पन्न कवि, शैलीकार, कथा-साहित्य को एक महत्त्वपूर्ण मोड़ देने वाले कथाकार, ललित-निबन्धकार, सम्पादक और सफल अध्यापक के रूप में जाना जाता है। इनका जन्म ७ मार्च १९११ को उत्तर प्रदेश के देवरिया जिले के कुशीनगर नामक ऐतिहासिक स्थान में हुआ। बचपन लखनऊ, कश्मीर, बिहार और मद्रास में बीता। बी.एस.सी. करके अंग्रेजी में एम.ए. करते समय क्रांतिकारी आन्दोलन से जुड़कर फरार हुए और १९३० ई. के अन्त में पकड़ लिए गये। अज्ञेय प्रयोगवाद एवं नई कविता को साहित्य जगत में प्रतिष्ठित करने वाले कवि हैं। अनेक जापानी हाइकु कविताओं को अज्ञेय ने अनूदित किया। बहुआयामी व्यक्तित्व के एकान्तमुखी प्रखर कवि होने के साथ-साथ वे एक अच्छे फोटोग्राफर और सत्यान्वेषी पर्यटक भी थे।



शिक्षा
प्रारंभिक शिक्षा-दीक्षा पिता की देख रेख में घर पर ही संस्कृत, फारसी, अंग्रेजी, और बांग्ला भाषा व साहित्य के अध्ययन के साथ। १९२५ में पंजाब से एंट्रेंस की परीक्षा पास की और उसके बाद मद्रास क्रिस्चन कॉलेज में दाखिल हुए। वहाँ से विज्ञान में इंटर की पढ़ाई पूरी कर १९२७ में वे बी ए़स स़ी क़रने के लिए लाहौर के फॅरमन कॉलेज के छात्र बने। १९२९ में बी ए़स स़ी करने के बाद एम ए़ म़ें उन्होंने अंग्रेजी विषय रखा; पर क्रांतिकारी गतिविधियों में हिस्सा लेने के कारण पढ़ाई पूरी न हो सकी।
कार्यक्षेत्र

१९३० से १९३६ तक विभिन्न जेलों में कटे। १९३६-३७ में सैनिक और विशाल भारत नामक पत्रिकाओं का संपादन किया। १९४३ से १९४६ तक ब्रिटिश सेना में रहे; इसके बाद इलाहाबाद से प्रतीक नामक पत्रिका निकाली और ऑल इंडिया रेडियो की नौकरी स्वीकार की। देश-विदेश की यात्राएं कीं। जिसमें उन्होंने कैलिफोर्निया विश्वविद्यालय से लेकर जोधपुर विश्वविद्यालय तक में अध्यापन का काम किया। दिल्ली लौटे और दिनमान साप्ताहिक, नवभारत टाइम्स, अंग्रेजी पत्र वाक् और एवरीमैंस जैसी प्रसिद्ध पत्र-पत्रिकाओं का संपादन किया। १९८० में उन्होंने वत्सलनिधि नामक एक न्यास की स्थापना की जिसका उद्देश्य साहित्य और संस्कृति के क्षेत्र में कार्य करना था। दिल्ली में ही ४ अप्रैल १९८७ को उनकी मृत्यु हुई। १९६४ में आँगन के पार द्वार पर उन्हें साहित्य अकादमी का पुरस्कार प्राप्त हुआ और १९७९ में कितनी नावों में कितनी बार पर भारतीय ज्ञानपीठ पुरस्कार
प्रमुख कृतियां

    कविता संग्रह: भग्नदूत, चिन्ता, इत्यलम्, हरी घास पर क्षण भर, बावरा अहेरी, इंद्रधनु रौंदे हुए ये, अरी ओ करूणा प्रभामय, आँगन के पार द्वार, पूर्वा (इत्यलम् तथा हरी घास पर क्षण भर), सुनहले शैवाल, कितनी नावों में कितनी बार, क्योंकि मैं उसे जानता हूँ, सागर-मुद्रा, पहले मैं सन्नाटा बुनता हूँ, महावृक्ष के नीचे, नदी की बाँक पर छाया, प्रिज़न डेज़ एण्ड अदर पोयम्स (अंग्रेजी में) और ऐसा कोई घर आपने देखा है।
    कहानी-संग्रह: विपथगा, परंपरा, कोठरी की बात, शरणार्थी, जयदोल, ये तेरे प्रतिरूप |
    उपन्यास: शेखर: एक जीवनी, नदी के द्वीप, अपने अपने अजनबी।
    यात्रा वृत्तांत: अरे यायावर रहेगा याद, एक बूंद सहसा उछली।
    निबंध संग्रह : सबरंग, त्रिशंकु, आत्मनेपद, आधुनिक साहित्य: एक आधुनिक परिदृश्य, आलवाल,
    संस्मरण: स्मृति लेखा
    डायरियां: भवंती, अंतरा और शाश्वती।
    विचार गद्य: संवत्‍सर
    नाटक: उत्तरप्रियदर्शी

उनका लगभग समग्र काव्य सदानीरा (दो खंड) नाम से संकलित हुआ है तथा अन्यान्य विषयों पर लिखे गए सारे निबंध सर्जना और सन्दर्भ तथा केंद्र और परिधि नामक ग्रंथो में संकलित हुए हैं। विभिन्न पत्र-पत्रिकाओं के संपादन के साथ-साथ अज्ञेय ने तारसप्तक, दूसरा सप्तक, और तीसरा सप्तक जैसे युगांतरकारी काव्य संकलनों का भी संपादन किया तथा पुष्करिणी और रूपांबरा जैसे काव्य-संकलनों का भी। वे वत्सलनिधि से प्रकाशित आधा दर्जन निबंध- संग्रहों के भी संपादक हैं। प्रख्यात साहित्यकार अज्ञेय ने यद्यपि कहानियां कम ही लिखीं और एक समय के बाद कहानी लिखना बिलकुल बंद कर दिया, परंतु हिन्दी कहानी को आधुनिकता की दिशा में एक नया और स्थायी मोड़ देने का श्रेय भी उन्हीं को प्राप्त है। निस्संदेह वे आधुनिक साहित्य के एक शलाका-पुरूष थे जिसने हिंदी साहित्य में भारतेंदु के बाद एक दूसरे आधुनिक युग का प्रवर्तन किया।

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