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Swami Vivekananda

Swami Vivekananda

Swami Vivekananda
Swami Vivekananda (12 January 1863 – 4 July 1902), born Narendranath Datta was the chief disciple of the 19th century saint Ramakrishna Paramahansa

and the founder of the Ramakrishna Math and the Ramakrishna Mission.  He is considered a key figure in the introduction of Indian philosophies of

Vedanta and Yoga to the "Western" world, mainly in America and Europe  and is also credited with raising interfaith awareness, bringing Hinduism to the

status of a major world religion during the end of the 19th century CE. Vivekananda is considered to be a major force in the revival of Hinduism in

modern India.  He is perhaps best known for his inspiring speech which began: "Sisters and Brothers of America,"  through which he introduced Hinduism

at the Parliament of the World's Religions in Chicago in 1893.

Swami Vivekananda was born in an aristocratic Bengali kayastha family of Calcutta on 12 January 1863. Vivekananda's parents influenced his thinking—

his father by his rationality and his mother by her religious temperament. From his childhood, he showed an inclination towards spirituality and God

realization. His guru, Ramakrishna, taught him Advaita Vedanta (non-dualism); that all religions are true and that service to man was the most effective

worship of God. After the death of his guru, Vivekananda became a wandering monk, touring the Indian subcontinent and acquiring first-hand knowledge

of conditions in India. He later travelled to Chicago and represented India as a delegate in the 1893 Parliament of World Religions. He conducted

hundreds of public and private lectures and classes, disseminating Vedanta and Yoga in America, England and Europe. He also established the Vedanta

societies in America and England.

Swami Vivekananda was born in Calcutta on 12 January 1863 during the Makara Sankranti festival in a traditional Kayastha family. His given name was

Narendranath Datta. His father Vishwanath Datta was an attorney of Calcutta High Court. Vishwanath Datta was considered generous, and had a liberal and

progressive outlook in social and religious matters. Narendranath's mother Bhuvaneswari Devi was a deeply religious woman. Before the birth of

Narendranath she yearned for a son and asked one of her relatives at Varanasi to make religious offerings to the god Shiva. According to traditional

accounts, Bhuvaneswari Devi had a dream in which Shiva said that he would be born as her son. Narendranath's thinking and personality were influenced

by his parents—by the rational thinking of his father and the religious temperament of his mother.He learnt the power of self-control from his mother.One

of the sayings of his mother that Narendra quoted often in his later years was "Remain pure all your life; guard your own honour and never transgress the

honour of others. Be very tranquil, but when necessary, harden your heart." He was adept in meditation and could enter the state of samadhi.He would see

a light while falling asleep and had a vision of Buddha during his meditation. During his childhood, he had a great fascination for wandering ascetics and

monks.

Narendra had varied interests and a wide range of scholarship in philosophy, religion, history, the social sciences, arts, literature, and other subjects. He

evinced much interest in the Hindu scriptures like the Vedas, the Upanishads, the Bhagavad Gita, the Ramayana, the Mahabharata and the Puranas. He was

also well versed in classical music, both vocal and instrumental, and is said to have undergone training under two Ustads, Beni Gupta and Ahamad Khan.

Since boyhood, he took an active interest in physical exercise, sports, and other organisational activities. Even when he was young, he questioned the

validity of superstitious customs and discrimination based on casteand refused to accept anything without rational proof and pragmatic test. Narendra

started his education at home then he joined the Metropolitan Institution of Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar in 1871 and studied here till 1877, till his father

moved to Raipur. After two years, he returned back to Calcutta. In January, 2012 Raipur airport was renamed as Swami Vivekanand Airport.

In 1879 after his family moved back to Calcutta, he passed the entrance examination for Presidency College, Calcutta, entering it for a brief period and

subsequently shifting to General Assembly's Institution, (currently known as Scottish Church College).During the course, he studied western logic, western

philosophy and history of European nations. In 1881 he passed the Fine Arts examination and in 1884 he passed the Bachelor of Arts.

Narendra is said to have studied the writings of David Hume, Immanuel Kant, Johann Gottlieb Fichte, Baruch Spinoza, Georg W. F. Hegel, Arthur

Schopenhauer, Auguste Comte, Herbert Spencer, John Stuart Mill, and Charles Darwin. Narendra became fascinated with the evolutionism of Herbert

Spencer, and translated Spencer's book on Education into Bengali. Narendra also had correspondence with Herbert Spencer for some time.Alongside his

study of Western philosophers, he was thoroughly acquainted with Indian Sanskrit scriptures and many Bengali works. According to his professors, student

Narendra was a prodigy. Dr. William Hastie, the principal of Scottish Church College, where he studied during 1881–84, wrote, "Narendra is really a genius.

I have travelled far and wide but I have never come across a lad of his talents and possibilities, even in German universities, among philosophical

students."He was regarded as a srutidhara—a man with prodigious memory.Following a discourse with Narendra, Dr. Mahendralal Sarkar said, "I could never

have thought that such a young boy had read so much!"

Narendra became the member of a Freemason's lodge and the breakaway faction from the Brahmo Samaj led by Keshub Chandra Sen. His initial beliefs

were shaped by Brahmo concepts, which include belief in a formless God and deprecation of the worship of idols. Not satisfied with his knowledge of

Philosophy, he wondered if God and religion could be made a part of one's growing experiences and deeply internalised. Narendra went about asking

prominent residents of contemporary Calcutta whether they had come "face to face with God" but could not get answers which satisfied him.

His first introduction to Ramakrishna occurred in a literature class in General Assembly's Institution, when he heard Principal Reverend W. Hastie lecturing

on William Wordsworth's poem The Excursion and the poet's nature-mysticism. In the course of explaining the word trance in the poem, Hastie suggested

his students that if they wanted to know the real meaning of trance, they should go to Ramakrishna of Dakshineswar. This prompted some of his students,

including Narendra to visit Ramakrishna.

Narendra's meeting with Ramakrishna in November 1881 proved to be a turning point in his life. About this first meeting, Narendra said, "Ramakrishna

looked just like an ordinary man, with nothing remarkable about him. He used the most simple language and I thought 'Can this man be a great teacher?'. I

crept near to him and asked him the question which I had been asking others all my life: 'Do you believe in God, Sir?' 'Yes', he replied. 'Can you prove it,

Sir?' 'Yes'. 'How?' 'Because I see Him just as I see you here, only in a much intenser sense.' That impressed me at once. [...] I began to go to that man, day

after day, and I actually saw that religion could be given. One touch, one glance, can change a whole life."

Though Narendra did not accept Ramakrishna as his guru initially and revolted against his ideas, he was attracted by his personality and visited him

frequently. He initially looked upon Ramakrishna's ecstasies and visions as, "mere figments of imagination", "mere hallucinations". As a member of

Brahmo Samaj, he revolted against idol worship and polytheism, and Ramakrishna's worship of Kali. He even rejected the Advaitist Vedantism of identity

with absolute as blasphemy and madness, and often made fun of the concept.

Though at first Narendra could not accept Ramakrishna and his visions, he could not neglect him either. It had always been in Narendra's nature to test

something thoroughly before he would accept it. He tested Ramakrishna, who never asked Narendra to abandon reason and faced all of Narendra's

arguments and examinations with patience—"Try to see the truth from all angles" was his reply. During the course of five years of his training under

Ramakrishna, Narendra was transformed from a restless, puzzled, impatient youth to a mature man who was ready to renounce everything for the sake of

God-realisation. In time, Narendra accepted Ramakrishna as his guru, and when he accepted, his acceptance was whole-hearted and with complete

surrendering as disciple.

In 1885 Ramakrishna suffered from throat cancer and he was shifted to Calcutta and later to Cossipore. Vivekananda and other Ramakrishna's disciples

took care of him during his final days. Vivekananda's spiritual education under Ramakrishna continued there. At Cossipore, Vivekananda reportedly

experienced Nirvikalpa Samadhi. During the last days of Ramakrishna, Vivekananda and some of the other disciples received the ochre monastic robes

from Ramakrishna, which formed the first monastic order of Ramakrishna Vivekananda was taught that service to men was the most effective worship of

God. It is reported that when Vivekananda doubted Ramakrishna's claim of avatar, Ramakrishna said, "He who was Rama, He who was Krishna, He himself

is now Ramakrishna in this body." During his final days, Ramakrishna asked Vivekananda to take care of other monastic disciples and in turn asked them

to look upon Vivekananda as their leader.Ramakrishna's condition worsened gradually and he expired in the early morning hours of 16 August, 1886 at

the Cossipore garden house. According to his disciples, this was Mahasamadhi.

After the death of Ramakrishna, their master, the monastic disciples led by Vivekananda formed a fellowship at a half-ruined house at Baranagar near the

river Ganges, with the financial assistance of the householder disciples of Ramakrishna. This became the first building of the Ramakrishna Math, or the

monastery of the disciples who constituted the first monastic order of Shri Ramakrishna.

The dilapidated house at Baranagar was chosen because of its low rent and proximity to the Cossipore burning-ghat, where Ramakrishna was cremated.

Narendra and other members of the Math often spent their time in meditation, discussing different philosophies and teachings of spiritual teachers

including Ramakrishna, Adi Shankara, Ramanuja, and Jesus Christ. Narendra reminisced about the early days in the monastery as follows-
“We underwent a lot of religious practice at the Baranagar Math. We used to get up at 3:00 am and become absorbed in japa and meditation. What a strong

spirit of detachment we had in those days! We had no thought even as to whether the world existed or not.     ”

In the early part of 1887, Narendra and eight other disciples took formal monastic vows. Narendra took the name of Swami Bibidishananda. Later he was

coronated with the name Vivekananda by Ajit Singh, the Maharaja of Khetri.

In January 1899 the Baranagar Math was shifted to a newly acquired plot of land at Belur in the district of Howrah, now famous as the Belur Math.

Later, in 1888, Vivekananda left the monastery as a Parivrâjaka—the Hindu religious life of a wandering monk, "without fixed abode, without ties,

independent and strangers wherever they go." His sole possessions were a kamandalu (water pot), staff, and his two favorite books—Bhagavad Gita and

The Imitation of Christ. Narendra travelled the length and breadth of India for five years, visiting important centers of learning, acquainting himself with

the diverse religious traditions and different patterns of social life.  He developed a sympathy for the suffering and poverty of the masses and resolved to

uplift the nation. Living mainly on bhiksha or alms, Narendra travelled mostly on foot and railway tickets bought by his admirers whom he met during the

travels. During these travels he gained acquaintance and stayed with scholars, Dewans, Rajas and people from all walks of life—Hindus, Muslims,

Christians, Pariahs (low caste workers) and government officials.

Northern India

In 1888, he started his journey from Varanasi. At Varanasi, he met pandit and Bengali writer, Bhudev Mukhopadhyay and Trailanga Swami, a famous saint

who lived in a Shiva temple. Here, he also met Babu Pramadadas Mitra, the noted Sanskrit scholar, to whom the Swami wrote a number of letters asking his

advice on the interpretation of the Hindu scriptures. After Varanasi he visited Ayodhya, Lucknow, Agra, Vrindavan, Hathras and Rishikesh. At Hathras he

met Sharat Chandra Gupta, the station master who later became one of his earliest disciples as Sadananda. Between 1888–1890, he visited Vaidyanath,

Allahabad. From Allahabad, he visited Ghazipur where he met Pavhari Baba, a Advaita Vedanta ascetic who spent most of his time in meditation. Between

1888–1890, he returned to Baranagore Math few times, because of ill health and to arrange for the financial funds when Balaram Bose and Suresh Chandra

Mitra, the disciples of Ramakrishna who supported the Math had expired.

The Himalayas

In July 1890, accompanied by fellow monk Swami Akhandananda (also a disciple of Ramakrishna), he continued his journey as a wandering monk and

returned to the Math only after his visit to the West. He visited Nainital, Almora, Srinagar and Dehradun in the Himalayas and Rishikesh and Haridwar.

During these travels, he met Swami Brahmananda, Saradananda, Turiyananda, Akhandananda and Advaitananda. They stayed at Meerut for a few days where

they passed their time in meditation, prayer and study of scriptures. At the end of January 1891, the Swami left his fellows and journeyed to Delhi alone.

Rajputana

At Delhi, after visiting historical places he journeyed towards Alwar, in the historic land of Rajputana. Later he journeyed to Jaipur, where he studied

Panini's Ashtadhyayi with a Sanskrit scholar. He next journeyed to Ajmer, where he visited the palace of Akbar and the famous Dargah and left for Mount

Abu. At Mount Abu, he met Raja Ajit Singh of Khetri, who became his ardent devotee and supporter. Swami Tathagatananda, a senior monk of the

Ramakrishna Order, and the Head of Vedanta Society, New York wrote as follows:

At Khetri, he delivered discourses to the Raja, became acquainted with the pandit Ajjada Adibhatla Narayana Dasu, and studied Mahabhasya on sutras of

Panini. After two and a half months there, towards the end of October 1891, he proceeded towards Rajasthan and Maharastra.

Western India

Continuing his travels, he visited Ahmedabad, Wadhwan, Limbdi. At Ahmedabad he completed his studies of Muslim and Jain culture. At Limbdi, he met

Thakur Saheb Jaswant Singh who had himself been to England and America. From the Thakur Saheb, the Swami first got the idea of going to the West to

preach Vedanta. He later visited Junagadh, where he was the guest of Haridas Viharidas Desai, the Diwan of the State, who was so charmed with his

company that every evening he, with all the State officials, used to meet the Swami and converse with him until late at night. From there he also visited

Girnar, Kutch, Porbander, Dwaraka, Palitana, Nadiad where he stayed at Diwan Haridas Viharidas Desai's house Nadiad ni haveli and Baroda. At Porbander

he stayed three quarters of a year, in spite of his vow as a wandering monk, to perfect his philosophical and Sanskrit studies with learned pandits; he

worked with a court pandit who translated the Vedas.

He later travelled to Mahabaleshwar and then to Pune. From Pune he visited Khandwa and Indore around June 1892. At Kathiawar he heard of the

Parliament of the World's Religions and was urged by his followers there to attend it. He left Khandwa for Bombay and reached there in July 1892. In a

Pune-bound train he met Bal Gangadhar Tilak. After staying with Tilak for few days in Pune, the Swami travelled to Belgaum in October 1892 and to Panaji

and Margao in Goa. He spent three days in the Rachol Seminary, the oldest convent-college of theology of Goa where rare religious literature in

manuscripts and printed works in Latin are preserved. He reportedly studied important Christian theological works here.

Later Vivekananda travelled to Bangalore, where he became acquainted with K. Seshadri Iyer, the Dewan of Mysore state, and later he stayed at the palace

as guest of the Maharaja of Mysore, Chamaraja Wodeyar. Regarding the Swami's learning, Seshadri reportedly remarked, "a magnetic personality and a

divine force which were destined to leave their mark on the history of his country." The Maharaja provided the Swami a letter of introduction to the

Dewan of Cochin and got him a railway ticket.

From Bangalore, he visited Trichur, Kodungalloor, Ernakulam. At Ernakulam, he met Chattampi Swamikal, contemporary of Narayana Guru in early

December 1892. From Ernakulam, he journeyed to Trivandrum, Nagercoil and reached Kanyakumari on foot during the Christmas Eve of 1892. At

Kanyakumari, the Swami reportedly meditated on the "last bit of Indian rock", famously known later as the Vivekananda Rock Memorial, for three days. At

Kanyakumari, Vivekananda had the "Vision of one India", also commonly called "The Kanyakumari resolve of 1892". He wrote, “At Cape Camorin sitting in

Mother Kumari's temple, sitting on the last bit of Indian rock—I hit upon a plan: We are so many sanyasis wandering about, and teaching the people

metaphysics—it is all madness. Did not our Gurudeva use to say, 'An empty stomach is no good for religion?' We as a nation have lost our individuality

and that is the cause of all mischief in India. We have to raise the masses."

From Kanyakumari he visited Madurai, where he met the Raja of Ramnad, Bhaskara Setupati, to whom he had a letter of introduction. The Raja became the

Swami's disciple and urged him to go to the Parliament of Religions at Chicago. From Madurai, he visited Rameshwaram, Pondicherry and Madras and here

he met some his most devoted disciples, who played important roles in collecting funds for Swami's voyage to America and later in establishing the

Ramakrishna Mission in Madras. With the aid of funds collected by his Madras disciples and Rajas of Mysore, Ramnad, Khetri, Dewans and other followers

Vivekananda left for Chicago on 31 May 1893 from Bombay assuming the name Vivekananda—the name suggested by the Maharaja of Khetri.

Visit to Japan
On his way to Chicago, Vivekananda visited Japan in 1893. He first reached the port city of Nagasaki, and then boarded a steamer to Kobe. From here to

took the land route to Yokohama, visiting along the way, the three big cities of Osaka, Kyoto and Tokyo. He called the Japanese "one of the cleanest

people on earth", and was impressed not only by neatness of their streets and dwellings but also by their movements, attitudes and gestures, all of which

he found to be "picturesque".

This was a period of rapid military build-up in Japan - a prelude to the Sino-Japanese War and the Russo-Japanese War. These preparations did not escape

the attention of Vivekananda, who wrote - "The Japanese seem now to have fully awakened themselves to the necessity of the present times. They have

now a thoroughly organized army equipped with guns which one of their own officers has invented and which is said to be second to none. Then, they

are continually increasing their navy." About the industrial progress he observed, "The match factories are simply a sight to see, and they are bent upon

making everything they want in their own country."

Contrasting the rapid progress of Japan with the situation back in India, he urged his countrymen - the "offspring of centuries of superstition and tyranny" -

to come out of their narrow holes and have a look abroad -“  Only I want that numbers of our young men should pay a visit to Japan and China every

year. Especially to the Japanese, India is still the dreamland of everything high and good. And you, what are you? ... talking twaddle all your lives, vain

talkers, what are you? Come, see these people, and then go and hide your faces in shame. A race of dotards, you lose your caste if you come out! Sitting

down these hundreds of years with an ever-increasing load of crystallized superstition on your heads, for hundreds of years spending all your energy

upon discussing the touchableness or untouchableness of this food or that, with all humanity crushed out of you by the continuous social tyranny of ages

– what are you? And what are you doing now? ... promenading the sea-shores with books in your hands – repeating undigested stray bits of European

brainwork, and the whole soul bent upon getting a thirty rupee clerkship, or at best becoming a lawyer – the height of young India’s ambition – and every

student with a whole brood of hungry children cackling at his heels and asking for bread! Is there not water enough in the sea to drown you, books,

gowns, university diplomas, and all?

First visit to the West (1893–1897)
His journey to America took him through China and Canada and he arrived at Chicago in July 1893. But to his disappointment he learnt that no one

without credentials from a bona fide organization would be accepted as a delegate. He came in contact with Professor John Henry Wright of Harvard

University. After inviting him to speak at Harvard and on learning from him not having credentials to speak at the Parliament, Wright is quoted as having

said, "To ask for your credentials is like asking the sun to state its right to shine in the heavens." Wright then addressed a letter to the Chairman in charge

of delegates writing, "Here is a man who is more learned than all of our learned professors put together." On the Professor, Vivekananda himself writes "He

urged upon me the necessity of going to the Parliament of Religions, which he thought would give an introduction to the nation."

Parliament of Religions
Swami Vivekananda on the platform of the Parliament of Religions September 1893
The Parliament of Religions opened on 11 September 1893 at the Art Institute of Chicago as part of the World's Columbian Exposition. On this day

Vivekananda gave his first brief address. He represented India and Hinduism. Though initially nervous, he bowed to Saraswati, the goddess of learning and

began his speech with, "Sisters and brothers of America!". To these words he got a standing ovation from a crowd of seven thousand, which lasted for two

minutes. When silence was restored he began his address. He greeted the youngest of the nations in the name of "the most ancient order of monks in the

world, the Vedic order of sannyasins, a religion which has taught the world both tolerance and universal acceptance." And he quoted two illustrative

passages in this relation, from the Bhagavad Gita—"As the different streams having their sources in different places all mingle their water in the sea, so, O

Lord, the different paths which men take, through different tendencies, various though they appear, crooked or straight, all lead to Thee!" and "Whosoever

comes to Me, through whatsoever form, I reach him; all men are struggling through paths that in the end lead to Me." Despite being a short speech, it

voiced the spirit of the Parliament and its sense of universality.

Dr. Barrows, the president of the Parliament said, "India, the Mother of religions was represented by Swami Vivekananda, the Orange-monk who exercised

the most wonderful influence over his auditors." He attracted widespread attention in the press, which dubbed him as the "Cyclonic monk from India". The

New York Critique wrote, "He is an orator by divine right, and his strong, intelligent face in its picturesque setting of yellow and orange was hardly less

interesting than those earnest words, and the rich, rhythmical utterance he gave them." The New York Herald wrote, "Vivekananda is undoubtedly the

greatest figure in the Parliament of Religions. After hearing him we feel how foolish it is to send missionaries to this learned nation."  The American

newspapers reported Swami Vivekananda as "the greatest figure in the parliament of religions" and "the most popular and influential man in the

parliament". The Boston Evening Transcript, reported on 30 September 1893 that Vivekananda was "a great favorite at the parliament...if he merely crosses

the platform, he is applauded".

He spoke several more times at the Parliament on topics related to Hinduism and Buddhism. The parliament ended on 27 September 1893. All his

speeches at the Parliament had one common theme—Universality—and stressed religious tolerance.

Lecturing tours in America and England
"I do not come", said Swamiji on one occasion in America, "to convert you to a new belief. I want you to keep your own belief; I want to make the

Methodist a better Methodist; the Presbyterian a better Presbyterian; the Unitarian a better Unitarian. I want to teach you to live the truth, to reveal the

light within your own soul."

After the Parliament of Religions held in September 1893 at The Art Institute of Chicago, Vivekananda spent nearly two whole years lecturing in various

parts of eastern and central United States, appearing chiefly in Chicago, Detroit, Boston, and New York. By the spring of 1895, he was weary and in poor

health, because of his continuous exertion. After suspending his lecture tour, the Swami started giving free and private classes on Vedanta and Yoga. In

June 1895, for two months he conducted private lectures to a dozen of his disciples at the Thousand Island Park. Vivekananda considered this to be the

happiest part of his first visit to America. He later founded the "Vedanta Society of New York".

During his first visit to America, he travelled to England twice—in 1895 and 1896. His lectures were successful there. Here he met Miss Margaret Noble, an

Irish lady, who later became Sister Nivedita. During his second visit in May 1896, while living at a house in Pimlico, the Swami met Max Müller a

renowned Indologist at Oxford University who wrote Ramakrishna's first biography in the West. From England, he also visited other European countries. In

Germany he met Paul Deussen, another famous Indologist.

He also received two academic offers, the chair of Eastern Philosophy at Harvard University and a similar position at Columbia University. He declined

both, saying that, as a wandering monk, he could not settle down to work of this kind. Swami Vivekananda in Greenacre, Maine in August, 1894

He attracted several sincere followers. Among his other followers were, Josephine MacLeod, Miss Müller, Miss Noble, E.T. Sturdy, Captain and Mrs. Sevier

—who played an important role in the founding of Advaita Ashrama and J.J. Goodwin—who became his stenographer and recorded his teachings and

lectures. The Hale family became one of his warmest hosts in America. His disciples—Madame Louise, a French woman, became Swami Abhayananda, and

Mr. Leon Landsberg, became Swami Kripananda. He initiated several other followers into Brahmacharya.

Swami Vivekananda's ideas were admired by several scholars and famous thinkers—William James, Josiah Royce, C. C. Everett, Dean of the Harvard School

of Divinity, Robert G. Ingersoll, Nikola Tesla, Lord Kelvin, and Professor Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von Helmholtz. Other personalities who were

attracted by his talks were Harriet Monroe and Ella Wheeler Wilcox—two famous American poets, Professor William James of Harvard University; Dr. Lewis

G. Janes, president of Brooklyn Ethical Association; Sara C. Bull, wife of Ole Bull, the Norwegian violinist; Sarah Bernhardt, the French actress and Madame

Emma Calvé, the French opera singer.

From West, he also set his Indian work in motion. Vivekananda wrote a stream of letters to India, giving advice and sending money to his followers and

brother monks. His letters from the West in these days laid down the motive of his campaign for social service. He constantly tried to inspire his close

disciples in India to do something big. His letters to them contain some of his strongest words. In one such letter, he wrote to Swami Akhandananda, "Go

from door to door amongst the poor and lower classes of the town of Khetri and teach them religion. Also, let them have oral lessons on geography and

such other subjects. No good will come of sitting idle and having princely dishes, and saying "Ramakrishna, O Lord!"—unless you can do some good to

the poor." Eventually in 1895, the periodical called Brahmavadin was started in Madras, with the money supplied by Vivekananda, for the purpose of

teaching the Vedanta. Subsequenly, Vivekananda's translation of first six chapters of The Imitation of Christ was published in Brahmavadin (1889).

Vivekananda left for India on 16 December 1896 from England with his disciples, Captain and Mrs. Sevier, and J.J. Goodwin. On the way they visited

France, Italy, seeing Leonardo da Vinci's The Last Supper, and set sail for India from the Port of Naples on December 30, 1896. Later, he was followed to

India by Max Müller and Sister Nivedita. Sister Nivedita devoted the rest of her life to the education of Indian women and the cause of India's

independence.


Colombo to Almora
The ship from Europe arrived in Colombo, Sri Lanka on 15 January 1897. Vivekananda received an ecstatic welcome. Here, he gave his first public speech

in East, India, the Holy Land. From there on, his journey to Calcutta was a triumphal progress. He traveled from Colombo to Pamban, Rameshwaram,

Ramnad, Madurai, Kumbakonam and Madras delivering lectures. People and Rajas gave him enthusiastic reception. In the procession at Pamban, the Raja

of Ramnad personally drew the Swami's carriage. On way to Madras, at several places where the train would not stop, the people squatted on the rails and

allowed the train to pass only after hearing the Swami. From Madras, he continued his journey to Calcutta and continued his lectures up to Almora. While

in the West he talked of India's great spiritual heritage, on return to India the refrain of his 'Lectures from Colombo to Almora' was uplift of the masses,

eradication of the caste virus, promotion of the study of science, industrialization of the country, removal of poverty, the end of the colonial rule.These

lectures have been published as Lectures from Colombo to Almora. These lectures are considered to be of nationalistic fervor and spiritual ideology.  His

speeches had tremendous influence on the Indian leaders, including Mahatma Gandhi, Bipin Chandra Pal and Balgangadhar Tilak.


Founding of the Ramakrishna Mission
Advaita Ashrama, Mayavati, a branch of the Ramakrishna Math, founded on March 19, 1899, later published many of Swami Vivekananda's work, now

publishes Prabuddha Bharata journal

On 1 May 1897 at Calcutta, Vivekananda founded the Ramakrishna Mission—the organ for social service. The ideals of the Ramakrishna Mission are based

on Karma Yoga. Its governing body consists of the trustees of the Ramakrishna Math- the organ to carry out religious works. Due to the close association

between the two, both have their headquarters at Belur, near Calcutta. This was the beginning of an organized social and religious movement to help the

masses through educational, cultural, medical and relief work.

Two other monasteries were founded by him- one at Mayavati on the Himalayas, near Almora called the Advaita Ashrama and another at Madras. Two

journals were also started, Prabuddha Bharata in English and Udbhodan in Bengali. The same year, the famine relief work was started by Swami

Akhandananda at Murshidabad district.

Vivekananda had inspired Sir Jamshedji Tata to set up a research and educational institution when they had travelled together from Yokohama to Chicago

on the Swami's first visit to the West in 1893. About this time the Swami received a letter from Tata, requesting him to head the Research Institute of

Science that Tata had set up. But Vivekananda declined the offer saying that it conflicted with his spiritual interests.


Visit to Punjab
He later visited western Punjab with the mission of establishing harmony between the Arya Samaj which stood for reinterpreted Hinduism and the

Sanatanaists who stood for orthodox Hinduism. At Rawalpindi, he suggested methods for rooting out antagonism between Arya Samajists and Muslims.

His visit to Lahore is memorable for his famous speeches and his inspiring association with Tirtha Ram Goswami, then a brilliant professor of Mathematics,

who later graced monasticism as Swami Rama Tirtha and preached Vedanta in India and America. He also visited other places, including Delhi and Khetri

and returned to Calcutta in January 1896. He spent the next few months consolidating the work of the Math and training the disciples. During this period

he composed the famous arati song, Khandana Bhava Bandhana during the event of consecration of Ramakrishna's temple at a devotees' house.

Second visit to the West and last years (1899–1902)
Swami Vivekananda in San Francisco, 1900.

Vivekananda once again left for the West in June 1899 amid his declining health. He was accompanied by Sister Nivedita and Swami Turiyananda. He

spent a short time in England, and went on to United States. During this visit, he founded the Vedanta societies at San Francisco and New York. He also

founded "Shanti Ashrama" (peace retreat) at California, with the aid of a generous 160-acre (0.65 km2) gift from an American devotee. Later he attended the

Congress of Religions, in Paris in 1900.  The Paris addresses are memorable for the scholarly penetration evinced by Vivekananda related to worship of

Linga and authenticity of the Gita. From Paris he went to Brittany, Vienna, Istanbul, Athens and Egypt. For the greater part of this period, he was the guest

of Jules Bois, the famous thinker. He left Paris on 24 October 1900 and arrived at the Belur Math on 9 December 1900. Vivekananda spent few of his days

at Advaita Ashrama, Mayavati and later at the Belur Math. Henceforth till the end he stayed at Belur Math, guiding the work of Ramakrishna Mission and

Math and the work in England and America. Thousands of visitors came to him during these years including The Maharaja of Gwalior and in December

1901, the stalwarts of Indian National Congress including Lokamanya Tilak. In December 1901, he was invited to Japan to participate in the Congress of

Religions; however his failing health made it impossible. He undertook pilgrimages to Bodhgaya and Varanasi towards his final days.

Death
The Swami Vivekananda temple at Belur Math, on the place where he was cremated.
His tours, hectic lecturing engagements, private discussions and correspondence had taken their toll on his health. He was suffering from asthma, diabetes

and other physical ailments. A few days prior to his demise, he was seen intently studying the almanac. Three days before his death he pointed out the

spot for this cremation—the one at which a temple in his memory stands today. He had remarked to several persons that he would not live to be forty.

On the day of his death he woke up very early in the morning, then he went to chapel and meditated for three hours, sang a song on Kali and then he

whispered- "If there were another Vivekananda, then he would have understood what this Vivekananda has done!" He taught Shukla-Yajur-Veda to some

pupils in the morning at Belur Math. He had a walk with Swami Premananda, a brother-disciple, and gave him instructions concerning the future of the

Ramakrishna Math.

Vivekananda died at ten minutes past nine p.m. on 4 July 1902 while he was meditating. According to his disciples, this was Mahasamadhi. Afterward, his

disciples recorded that they had noticed "a little blood" in the Swami's nostrils, about his mouth and in his eyes. The doctors remarked that it was due to

the rupture of a blood-vessel in the brain, but they could not find the real cause of the death. According to his disciples, Brahmarandhra — the aperture in

the crown of the head — must have been pierced when he attained Mahasamadhi. Vivekananda had fulfilled his own prophecy of not living to be forty

years old. The funeral pyre of Swami Vivekananda was built and the body was consigned to the flames kindled with sandalwood on the bank of Ganga in

Belur. On the other bank of the river, Ramakrishna had been cremated sixteen years before.

Teachings and philosophy
Swami Vivekananda believed a country's future depends on its people, so he mainly stressed on man, "man-making is my mission", that's how he

described his teaching. He wanted “to set in motion a machinery which will bring noblest ideas to the doorstep of even the poorest and the meanest.”

Swami Vivekananda believed that the essence of Hinduism was best expressed in the Vedanta philosophy, based on the interpretation of Adi Shankara.

He summarized the Vedanta's teachings as follows,

    Each soul is potentially divine.
    The goal is to manifest this Divinity within by controlling nature, external and internal.
    Do this either by work, or worship, or mental discipline, or philosophy—by one, or more, or all of these—and be free.
    This is the whole of religion. Doctrines, or dogmas, or rituals, or books, or temples, or forms, are but secondary details.

According to Vivekananda, an important teaching he received from Ramakrishna was that "Jiva is Shiva" (each individual is divinity itself). He founded the

Ramakrishna Math and Mission on the principle of आत्मनॊ मोक्षार्थम् जगद्धिताय च Hindustani pronunciation: (for one's own salvation and for the welfare of the

world).

Vivekananda advised his followers to be holy, unselfish and have shraddha (faith). He encouraged the practice of Brahmacharya (Celibacy). In one of the

conversations with his childhood friend Priya Nath Sinha he attributes his physical and mental strengths, and eloquence to the practice of Brahmacharya.

Vivekananda did not advocate the emerging area of parapsychology and astrology (one instance can be found in his speech Man the Maker of his

Destiny, Complete-Works, Volume 8, Notes of Class Talks and Lectures) saying that this form of curiosity doesn't help in spiritual progress but actually

hinders it.

Influence
Swami Vivekananda remains the most influential figure in modern Hinduism. He revitalized the religion within and outside India. Vivekananda was the

principal reason behind the enthusiastic reception of yoga, transcendental meditation and other forms of Indian spiritual self-improvement in the West.

Agehananda Bharati explained that, "...modern Hindus derive their knowledge of Hinduism from Vivekananda, directly or indirectly."

In the background of germinating nationalism in the British-ruled India, Vivekananda crystalised the nationalistic idea. In the words of the social reformer

Charles Freer Andrews, "The Swami's intrepid patriotism gave a new colour to the national movement throughout India. More than any other single

individual of that period Vivekananda had made his contribution to the new awakening of India." Vivekananda drew the attention towards the prevalence

of poverty in the country, and maintained that addressing such poverty was prerequisite for the national awakening. His nationalistic thoughts influenced

scores of Indian thinkers and leaders.

The first governor general of independent India, Chakravarti Rajagopalachari, said "Vivekananda saved Hinduism, saved India." According to Indian

freedom fighter Subhash Chandra Bose, Vivekananda "is the maker of modern India";  for Mahatma Gandhi, Vivekananda's influence increased his "love for

his country a thousandfold." Swami Vivekananda is widely considered to have inspired India's freedom struggle movement. His writings inspired a whole

generation of freedom fighters including Subhash Chandra Bose, Aurobindo Ghose, Bal Gangadhar Tilak and Bagha Jatin.

Subhash Chandra Bose, a major proponent of armed struggle for Indian independence movement said about Vivekananda, "His personality was rich,

profound and complex... Reckless in his sacrifice, unceasing in his activity, boundless in his love, profound and versatile in his wisdom, exuberant in his

emotions, merciless in his attacks but yet simple as a child, he was a rare personality in this world of ours." Aurobindo Ghose considered Vivekananda as

his spiritual mentor.  He said, "Vivekananda was a soul of puissance if ever there was one, a very lion among men... We perceive his influence still

working gigantically, we know not well how, we know not well where, in something that is not yet formed, something leonine, grand, intuitive, upheaving

that has entered the soul of India and we say, "Behold, Vivekananda still lives in the soul of his Mother and in the souls of her children."
Swami Vivekananda Statue near Gateway of India

At the Belur Math, Mahatma Gandhi was heard to say that his whole life was an effort to bring into actions the ideas of Vivekananda. Many years after

Vivekananda's death, Rabindranath Tagore told Romain Rolland, "If you want to know India, study Vivekananda. In him everything is positive and nothing

negative." The French Nobel Laureate Romain Rolland writes, "His words are great music, phrases in the style of Beethoven, stirring rhythms like the

march of Händel choruses. I cannot touch these sayings of his, scattered as they are through the pages of books, at thirty years' distance, without

receiving a thrill through my body like an electric shock. And what shocks, what transports, must have been produced when in burning words they issued

from the lips of the hero!"

Jamshedji Tata was influenced by Vivekananda to establish the Indian Institute of Science—one of India's well known research university—during their

conversation as fellow travelers on a ship from Japan to Chicago in 1898. Abroad, Vivekananda had some interactions with Max Müller. Scientist Nikola

Tesla was one of those influenced by the Vedic philosophy teachings of the Swami Vivekananda. On November 11, 1995 a section of Michigan Avenue,

one of the most prominent streets in Chicago, was formally renamed "Swami Vivekananda Way".

National Youth Day in India is held on his birthday, January 12. He is projected as a role model for youth by the Indian government as well as non-

government organisations and personalities. In many institutes, students have come together and formed organizations meant for promoting discussion of

spiritual ideas and the practice of such high principles. Many of such organizations have adopted his name. One such group also exists at IIT Madras and

is popularly known as Vivekananda Study Circle. Another one exists at IIT Kanpur by the name Vivekananda Samiti. Additionally, Swami Vivekananda's

ideas and teachings have carried on globally, being practiced in institutions all over the world.


Works
Vivekananda left a body of philosophical works . Vivekananda observed that the billions of people on the earth could be classified into four basic types-

those who were in constant activity, or the worker; those who were driven by their inner urge to achieve something in life, or the lover; those who tended

to analyze the working of their minds, or the mystic; and those who weighed everything with reason, or the philosopher. His books (compiled from

lectures given around the world) on the four Yogas (Karma yoga for the worker, Bhakti yoga for the lover, Raja yoga for the mystic, and Jnana yoga for the

philosopher) are very influential and still seen as fundamental texts for anyone interested in the Hindu practice of Yoga. His letters are of great literary

and spiritual value. He was also considered a very good singer and a poet. By the time of his death, he had composed many songs including his favorite

Kali the Mother. He used humour for his teachings. His language is very free flowing. His own Bengali writings stand testimony to the fact that he

believed that words - spoken or written - should be for making things easier to understand rather than show off the speaker or writer's knowledge.
 
 
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